EARTH 1 – 5erika artaker
5_10  timeline
Timeline / Global Warming research
Center for History of Physics
The American Institute of Physics
5_9   overview
Climate Change: Where We Are Now and Where We Are Going?
James White
[Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research]
2012 01
Stefan RahmstorfGerman oceanographer and climatologist.
Since 2000, Potsdam University [Physics of the Oceans].
Ph.D. in oceanography from Victoria University of Wellington.
His work focuses on the role of ocean currents in climate change.
[has been described by Nature as one of the top-5 science blogs in 2006]
5_8_1    Eart 101_TALKS
CONTEXT_Earth101 is a part of series of lectures given at the University of Iceland
Rising Seas: How Fast, How Far
Stefan Rahmstorf
2016 05 25
Earth 101, University of Iceland
Extreme Weather: What Role Does Global Warming Play? Stefan Rahmstorf
2016 05 25
Earth101, University of Iceland
5_6_1    Jet stream
The Jet Stream is Getting Weird
data source:
Jeff Masters
Scientific American  311 [68 - 75]
5_6_1_1   jet stream_MAP
5_5    OCEAN currents
Is the Gulf Stream System Slowing?
Stefan Rahmstorf
2016 05 25
Earth101, University of Iceland
The Climate Crisis
Stefan Rahmstorf .
2013 10 05
Earth101, University of Iceland
global average tempertaure
it is composed of:
ocean surface tempertature [g.a.]
land surface temperature [g.a.]

"The area of the oceans remains cooler, than over land,
in a scenario [projection/simulation] where we have a global average temperature rise of eg. 4 degrees C, most land areas have warmed by more than 6 degrees C."
arctic ice video
Peter Sinclair.
2013 10 05
5_3   temperature rise_TALK
Erhitzung der Erde
Stefan Rahmstorf
2017 03 20
5_1  Robert G. Fovell_23 lectures
University of California, Los Angeles, Professor ofAtmospheric and Oceanic Sciences
Meteorology: An Introduction to the Wonders of the Weather.
TTC_The Teaching Company, Course 1796
5_2  Richard Wilson_12 lectures
Middlebury College, Ph.D., Dartmouth College
Earth's Changing Climate .
TTC_The Teaching Company, Course 1219
5_0  Martin Persson_LECTURE
Assistant Professor at Physical Resource Theory at Department of Energy & Environment at Chalmers University of Technology
Earth´s Climate and Climate Change .

CONTEXT_Earth´s Climate and Climate Change is a PhD course held at Gothenburg University
Joscha Bach
Our civilization may not exist for long
2021 08 22
podcast Lex Friedman
Bondi, André B.
Characteristics of scalability and their impact on performance. Proceedings of the second international workshop on Software and performance – WOSP '00. p. 195. ISBN 158113195X. doi:10.1145/350391.350432 , 2000
SCALABILITY is the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged in order to accommodate that growth. [Bondi, André B. 2000].
Gaia hypothesis.
James Lovelock and codeveloped by Lynn Margulis. hypothesis .
Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the Gaia hypothesis

... proposes that organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic self-regulatingcomplex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.

The Gaia hypothesis posits that the Earth is a self-regulating complex system involving the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrospheres and the pedosphere, tightly coupled as an evolving system.
The hypothesis contends that this system as a whole, called Gaia, seeks a physical and chemical environment optimal for contemporary life.
The Limits to Growth.
Donella H. Meadows


a report on the computer simulation of exponential economic and population growth with a finite supply of resources.
Funded by the Volkswagen Foundation] and commissioned by the Club of Rome
4_2  SCIENTIFIC PROCESS + ethics ++
Nima Arkani-Hamed
(Persian: نیما ارکانی حامد‎‎) (born 1972)
is an American-Canadian theoretical physicist of Iranian descent, with interests in high-energy physics, string theory and cosmology.
Arkani-Hamed is now on the faculty at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, and director of The Center for Future High Energy Physics (CFHEP) in China, Beijing. He was formerly a professor at Harvard University and the University of California, Berkeley.

Philosophy of Science ++
2016 07 25
Cornell University

the strategies the science community uses to achieve to work together on one common goal [over such a long period of time].
The "rules" that define the society of science.

!!video unfortunately NOW unavaliable!!
_there is a TRUTH out there, wit a capital T and we try to find it [06:00]
strategies to most successfully ectract the truth:

_be honest with yourself and with others [11:20]

_it doesn't matter who you are, only the content of your ideas are relevant [12:20]

_In Science we have heros not prophets [Steve Weinberg] [13:50]

_We are never in the posession of the whole truth, and never pretend to have complete certainty [14:30]

_we do the best we can and boldly extrapolate ideas we have most confidence in. [15:00]

_be tolerant to other peoples ideas, keep an open mind[15:40]

_it is necessary to be Intolerant + harshly judgemental of ideas that are not perfectly honest, intelectually lazy [especially your own] [16:40]
Erich Fromm
a German social psychologist, psychoanalyst, sociologist, humanistic philosopher.
[books:The Art of Loving,...check it out!]
“A technological civilization is programmed by the principal that something ought to be done if it is technologically possible.
If it is possible to make nuclear weapons, they must be built even if they destroy us all.”

40_7    guide
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Douglas Adams . 1978-80
THE GUIDE you need to understand EVERYTHING!
40_6    insights
Margret Atwood [1939] is a Canadian poet, novelist, literary critic, essayist, inventor, teacher and environmental activis.

Oryx and Crake . 2003
... ecology creates solutions
Ursula Kroeber Le Guin [1929 – 2018]
The Word for World Is Forest . 1976 . Ursula K. Le Guin

... humans arrive .... on Athshe, a tree-covered planet whose inhabitants have formed a culture centered on lucid dreaming. The forest and the inhabitants are one organism.

READ . The Word for World Is Forest
Princess Mononoke 1997 . Hayao Miyazaki . Studio Gibli . jap anim
Spirited Away . 2001. Hayao Miyazaki . Studio Gibli . jap anim . Chihiro Ogino . Bu $19 mio. Bo $264 mio
Life Aquatic. 2004 . Wes Anderson . Bill Murray, Owen Wilson, Cate Blanchett, Anjelica Huston, Willem Dafoe, Jeff Goldblum . bg: $50 million, bo: $34 million
[An homage to French diving pioneer Jacques-Yves Cousteau, and everything else what is important in life.]
40_1    LIST
WATCH + READ ing list

W: watch
R: resd

2001: A Space Odyssey

1968, Stanley Kubrick
[expand your mind and set in context]

The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas
1973, Ursula Kroeber Le Guin
[the price to pay]

They Live
1988, John Carpenenter
[it is infront of you]

Oryx and Crake
2003, Margret Atwood
[deep ecology]

1965, Frank Herbert
[power of resources]

The Word for World Is Forest
1976, Ursula Kroeber Le Guin
[REM sleep]

2009, James Cameron

Snow Crash
1992, Neil stephenson
[franchise governements]

Roadside Picnic
1973, Arkady and Boris Strugatsky
[going forwards]

1979, Andrei Tarkovsky
[dreaming forwards]

The Winter Market
[short story/ Burning Chrome],
1986 William Gibson
[love+body+mind modification]

Ghost in the Shell

1995, Mamoru Oshii
[body, mind, intelligence]

Blade Runner

1982, Ridley Scott

Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
1968, Philip K. Dick

Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus
1818, Mary Shelley

Princess Mononoke
1997, Hayao Miyazaki / Studio Gibl

Silent Running
1972, Douglas Trumbull

Shadow’s End

1992, Sheri S. Tepper

Soylent Green
1973, Richard Fleischer

Make Room! Make Room!
1966, Harry Harrison

Silent Spring
1962, Rachel Carson [biologist]

The Martian
2011, Andy Weir
[deal with resources]

Heavy Weather
1994, Bruce Sterling

Three Californias Trilogy
1984 – 1990, Kim Stanley Robinson
[climate change]

The Burning World

1964, J. G. Ballard

Escape from L.A.

1996, John Carpenenter

Escape from New York
1981, John Carpenenter
[enclosed situations]

The Road
2006, Cormac McCarthy

2006, Mike Judge
[state of mind]

The Sheep Look Up

1972, John Brunner

1972, Andrei Tarkovsky
[power of dreams]

1961, Stanisław Lem
[the future is now]

The Futurological Congress
1971, Stanisław Lem
[world in a world in a world and best end]
3_12    Wait but Why_BLOG
Tim Urban
How Tesla Will Change The World
2015 06 02_
a story of energy++
Energy production is more efficient in a power plant than it is in a car engine.
_Burning natural gas in a power plant is about 60% efficient
_In a car, burning gas is less than 25% efficient, [vast majority of the energy lost to heat]
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Energy Flow Chart
[PJ_ petajoules. 1 petajoule = 1 quadrillion joules ]
IEA [International Energy Agency], 2015, Energy Balance flow
[Balance, Total Final Connsumption]
WORLD Balance [produnction/ consumption]
by sector [BAL]_2015

799592 PJ_production
392871 PJ_consumption
406750 PJ_rejected endergy = 49%
WORLD Total final consumption
by sector [TFC]_2015

392871 PJ
Olvia E. Buttler
Interview, transcending barriers
04 2000,
Balticon 34
3_10   Carbon - emissions_ARTICLE
Resource extraction responsible for half world’s carbon emissions
Jonathan Watts
2019 03 12
The Guardian
3_9   climate change_PODCAST
David Wallace-Wells
2019 06
Joe Rogan Podcast

3_8    ARTICLE
what a burning world tells us about climate change
David Wallace-Wells
2019 02 02
The Guardian

3_7    climate change_BOOK
Carbon Ideologies
part1: No Immediate Danger
part2: No Good Alternative
2018, William T. Vollmann
The Most Honest Book About Climate Change Yet
Nathaniel Rich
2018 09 , The Atlantic

Carbon Ideologies is about another kind of violence, the violence inflicted by the production of coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear energy.

The victims of these carbon ideologies are not only the species of fauna and flora that are going extinct, the fragile ecosystems that will collapse, and the future generations of humans who will have to subsist on insects.

The victims are us—we who are now living and who deny, to varying extents, the degree of damage we are inflicting upon ourselves.
3_6  Naom Chmosky_TALK
Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist.
Climate Change Speech 2017
The Dirty Secret of the World’s Plan to Avert Climate Disaster. Climate Science and Economic
2017 12 10

capturing carbon dioxide before emmitting is included in a lot of studies
CONTEXT_ AGU, American Geophysical Union’s Fall Meeting, New Orleans
 2 dergree goal passed
"The window of opportunity for actually limiting global warming to well below 2 degrees is actually falling shut on us as we speak." [Stefan Rahmstorf]
Climate Solutions_Press conference
2017 12 13
Stefan Rahmstorf, Sarah Myhre, Richard Alley,Michael Mann
Climate Solutions_GC23H
2017 12 16
David Titley, Sarah E Myhre, Irena F Creed, Yangyang Xu
Policy, Planning, Science and Engineering in Uncertain Political and Economic Times
3_2  James Hansen_TALK
James Hansen is an American adjunct professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University.
From 1981 to 2013, he was the head of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies.
He is best k nown for his research in climatology, his 1988 Congressional testimony on climate change that helped raise broad awareness of global warming, and his advocacy of action to avoid dangerous climate change.

2017 03 08
Jim Hansen explains the Climate Crisis
3_1  Gavin Schmidt_TALK
Nasa / GISS [Goddard Institute for Space Studies]
Director of GISS and Principal Investigator for the GISS ModelE Earth System Model
The emergent patterns of climate change
CONTEXT_TED [Technology, Entertainment, Design conference]
30_3  skeptic
nominee to head the EPA - Environmental Protection Agency: Scott Pruitt
Hearing _Senate committee on environment and public works U.S [Sen. Bernie Sander]
 2017 01
30_2  skeptic
Canadian Senate . Climate Science and Economics Hearing at the Senate committee on environment and public works
2011 10 15
30_1  IPPC critique
Climategate 'hide the decline' explained by Berkeley professor Richard A. Muller
2_9   reality_ARTICLE
Manmade Antarctic snowstorm 'could save coastal cities from rising seas'
Damian Carrington
2019 07 17

The Guardian

A series of earlier studies concluded the accelerating loss of ice from the region could not be stopped by emissions cuts any more, meaning the oceans will rise by three metres in the coming centuries.
This would leave major cities across the world, from New York to Kolkata to Shanghai, below sea level.

“As scientists we feel it is our duty to inform society about every potential option to counter the problems ahead,”
said Prof Anders Levermann, at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany, who led the research.
2_8.1   psychoanalysis_ARTICLE
What psychotherapy can do for the climate and biodiversity crises
Caroline Hickman
2019 06 07

The Conversation

Gus Speth:
Environmental campaigner Gus Speth once said he used to think the biggest problems facing the planet were biodiversity loss, ecosystem collapse and climate change. He believed that within 30 years, good science could address these problems. But, he continued:
I was wrong.

The top environmental problems are selfishness, greed and apathy, and to deal with those we need a spiritual and cultural transformation. And we scientists don’t know how to do that.
2_8.2   psycoanalysis_ARTICLE
Finding hope from the dark side – psychoanalytic and interdisciplinary perspectives on climate change
Rosemary Randall
2012 09 30

Blog: Rosemary Randall
[A psychoanalytically trained psychotherapist researching, writing and blogging on climate change]

Rosemary Randall :
Why is climate change so hard to deal with?
In general the inadequate public response to climate change is located variously as an information deficit, a difficulty in appreciating dangers that are distant in time or place, or as a tendency for people to seek explanations that confirm their existing cultural assumptions/status quo.

Meanwhile the lack of an adequate political response is usually attributed to lack of political will and leadership, the difficulty of complex negotiations or the operation of crude nationalism and economic self-interest.
2_7   digital / analog thinking_TALK
Malcolm Gladwel
The Future of Humanity
2018 02
World Government Summit

The world has changed, from one in which problems are puzzles to one in which they are, instead, mysteries.
little data -> a puzzle
to much data -> mystery
2_5    accountability-free politics
America's new aristocracy lives in an accountability-free zone
David Sirota
2018 10 05
The Guardian

Once again, the message was unavoidable: in the new accountability-free zone, companies shouldn’t be bothered to even explain – much less face punishment for – their role in a crisis that threatens the survival of the human species.
2_4    Nihilism
Why Aren’t We Talking More About Trump’s Nihilism?
Matt Taibbi
2018 10 01

The study predicts a rise in global temperatures of about 4°C, or seven degrees Fahrenheit, by the year 2100.

Worse, it asserts global warming is such an inevitable reality, there’s no point in reducing auto emissions, as we’re screwed anyway.
“The emissions reductions necessary to keep global emissions within this carbon budget could not be achieved solely with drastic reductions in emissions from the U.S. passenger car and light truck vehicle fleet,” is how the report put it.

To make a real difference, it adds we’d have to “move away from the use of fossil fuels,” which is “not currently technologically feasible or economically practicable.”
2_3   human condition
Russell Brand, podcast
Pankaj Mishra_Russell Brand . 2017
Age of anger
2_2   Interconnection vs. Separation
Why you'll never meet a white supremacist who cares about climate change
Rebecca Solnit . 2019 03 19
The Guardian

Climate change is based on science. But if you delve into it deeply enough it is a kind of mysticism without mystification, a recognition of the beautiful interconnection of all life and the systems – weather, water, soil, seasons, ocean pH – on which that life depends.
It acknowledges that everything is connected, that to dig up the carbon that plants so helpfully sequestered in the ground over eons and burn it so that returns to the sky as carbon dioxide changes the climate, and that this changed climate isn’t just warmer, it’s more chaotic, in ways that break these elegant patterns and relationships.
That chaos is a kind of violence – the violence of hurricanes, wildfires, new temperature extremes, broken weather patterns, droughts, extinctions, famines. Which is why climate action has been and must be nonviolent. It is a movement to protect life.
2_1    growth_Article
why western philosophy can only teach us so much
Julian Baggini
2018 09 25
The Guardian

1_18   situation_ARTICLE
Climate Leviathan: A Political Theory of Our Planetary Future
Geoff Mann and Joel Wainwright
2020 01 07
Verso Books

rapid — and massive — change in the geographies of energy production and consumption is currently underway.
In a bid for energy security and new streams of profits, some of the world’s largest consumers of energy are turning to “friendlier,” and, ideally, domestic suppliers.
Big Oil’s gaze has turned north (to the Arctic), deeper (offshore), and dirtier (tar sands).
While the Middle East still holds most of the world’s oil reserves, it accounts for only about a third of current global oil production.
1_17   situation_ARTICLE
‘Climate apartheid’:
UN expert says human rights may not survive

Damian Carrington
2019 06 25
The Guardian

Philip Alston, UN special rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights said the impacts of global heating are likely to undermine not only basic rights to life, water, food, and housing for hundreds of millions of people, but also democracy and the rule of law.

Alston is critical of the “patently inadequate” steps taken by the UN itself, countries, NGOs and businesses, saying they are “entirely disproportionate to the urgency and magnitude of the threat”.
His report to the UN human rights council (HRC) concludes:
“Human rights might not survive the coming upheaval.”
1_16.1   climate+politics_SCIENCE
Scientists for Future zu den Protesten für mehr Klimaschutz
2019 03 12
Jung&Naiv [Tilo Jung]

Wissenschaft: Prof. Dr. Maja Göpel, Dr. Eckart von Hirschhausen, Volker Quaschning, Prof. Dr. Karen Helen Wiltshire,
Fridays for Future: Luisa Neubauer, Jakob Blasel

Dr. Maja Göpel:
[video: 22:47 / 46:25]

Was wir schon seit 1972 wahrgenommen haben durch die Aufnahme aus dem Weltal [Blue Marble, Apollo 17, Nasa, Harrison Schmitt / Ron Evans ]:
Es gib einen begrenzen Planeten auf dem die Menschheit ihre Existenz sichern und in die Zukunft tragen kann. […]

Wir muessen die Art zu wirtschaften innerhalb dieser planetaren Grenzen einbetten und da sinnvoll zirkulaer ausrichten –
dass alleine ist eine andere art ueber Ökonomie nachzudenken –
nicht das lineare aus der Erde nehmen benutzen wegschmeissen, wo auch immer weg dann ist –
darüber sagen uns viele der ökonomischen Modelle nichts,
es bleibt auf unserem Planeten auf Müll im Zweifel liegen,
und deshalb ist auch die Vision einer wirklich konsequenten zirkulaeren Kreislaufwirtschaft wichtig,
egal in welchem Bereich.
1_16.2   climate+politics_YOUTUBE
Die Zerstörung der CDU
2019 05 18
Rezo ja lol ey

1_16.3   climate+politics_SCIENCE
reply / Antwort
Das Rezo-Video im Faktencheck
2019 05 24
Stefan Rahmstorf [oceanographer, climatologist]

"...hat Rezo die entscheidenden Fakten zur Klimakrise sehr gut verstanden, und er hat sie klar und eindringlich in seinem Video kommuniziert."

1_16.4   climate+politics_SCIENCE
reply / Antwort
Das Rezo-Video im Faktencheck
2019 05 23
Volker Quaschnig [engineering, economy]

"In diesem Faktencheck wurden keine belastbaren Aussagen der CDU gefunden, welche die Inhalte in Bezug auf Klimaschutz des Videos von Rezo substanziell widerlegen."

1_16.5   climate+politics_YOUTUBE
Ein Statement von 90+ Youtubern
2019 05 24
Rezo ja lol ey [+youtube comunity !!]

1_15   Capitalism_ARTICLE
Ending climate change requires the end of capitalism. Have we got the stomach for it?
Phil McDuff .
2019 03 18
The Guardian
1_14   concrete_ARTICLE
Concrete: the most destructive material on Earth
Jonathan Watts .
2019 02 25
The Guardian
1_13   collaps_ARTICLE
Climate and economic risks 'threaten 2008-style systemic collapse'
Jonathan Watts .
2019 02 12
The Guardian
1_12   polar bear out of ice_ARTICLE
What polar bears in a Russian apartment block reveal about the climate crisis
Jonathan Watts .
2019 02 11
The Guardian

Arctic bears are being driven off their normal migration routes and into human habitation.
1_11    Biosphere
Humans just 0.01% of all life but have destroyed 83% of wild mammals – study
Damian Carrington
2018 05 01,
The Guardian

The new work reveals that farmed poultry today makes up 70% of all birds on the planet, with just 30% being wild.

The picture is even more stark for mammals – 60% of all mammals on Earth are livestock, mostly cattle and pigs, 36% are human and just 4% are wild animals.
1_10   WYSI not WYG
Our cult of personality is leaving real life in the shade
George Monbiot
2018 10 03,
The Guardian

The spotlight effect allows the favoured few to set the agenda.
Almost all the most critical issues remain in the darkness beyond the circle of light.

Every day, thousands of pages are published and thousands of hours broadcast by the media.
But scarcely any of this space and time is made available for the matters that really count:
environmental breakdown, inequality, exclusion, the subversion of democracy by money.
In a world of impersonation, we obsess about trivia.

The task of all citizens is to understand what we are seeing. The world as portrayed is not the world as it is.
The personification of complex issues confuses and misdirects us, ensuring that we struggle to comprehend and respond to our predicaments. 
1_9    growth_Article
While economic growth continues we’ll never kick our fossil fuels habit
George Monbiot
2018 09 20,
The Guardian

Given that economic growth, in nations that are already rich enough to meet the needs of all, requires an incrase in pointless consumption, it is hard to see how it can ever be decoupled from the assault on the living planet.

Clean growth
is as much of an oxymoron as clean coal.
But making this obvious statement in public life is treated as political suicide.

... our current economic model is threatening the foundations on which human wellbeing depends”.
It recognises that ecological collapse cannot be prevented through consumer choice or corporate social responsibility. {British Labour party}

The worst denial is not the claim that this existential crisis isn’t happening. It is the failure to talk about it at all. Not talking about our greatest predicament, even as it starts to bite, requires a constant and determined effort. 
1_8    system change_ARTICLE
A better form of consumerism will NOT save the planet
We won’t save the Earth with a better kind of disposable coffee cup
2018 09 06
The Guardian

The problems we face are structural:
a political system captured by commercial interests, and an economic system that seeks endless growth.
The ideology of consumption is so prevalent that it has become invisible.

One-planet living means not only seeking to reduce our own consumption, but also mobilising against the system that promotes the great tide of junk.
This means fighting corporate power, changing political outcomes and challenging the growth-based, world-consuming system we call capitalism.`

Incremental linear changes … are not enough to stabilise the Earth system.
Widespread, rapid and fundamental transformations will likely be required to reduce the risk of crossing the threshold.” [Hothouse Earth paper, ]
1_7    climate change history_ARTICLE
Losing Earth:
The Decade We Almost Stopped Climate Change
2018 09 01,
The New York Times magazine

James Hansen’s
most recent paper, published last year, announced that
Earth is now as warm as it was before the last ice age, 115,000 years ago,
when the seas were more than 6 meters higher than they are today.
He and his team have concluded that the only way to avoid dangerous levels of warming is to bend the emissions arc below the x-axis.

article start:
The world has warmed more than 1 °C since the Industrial Revolution.
The Paris climate agreement — the nonbinding, unenforceable and already unheeded treaty signed on Earth Day in 2016 — hoped to restrict warming to 2 °C. The odds of succeeding, according to a recent study based on current emissions trends, are one in 20.

stay @ 2 °C:
extimction and abandonment
of inhabited Areas for all animals including humans [land and oceans__

If by some miracle we are able to limit warming to 2 °C, we will only have to negotiate the extinction of the world’s tropical reefs, sea-level rise of several meters and the abandonment of the Persian Gulf.

stay @ 4 °C: Europe in permanent drought;
vast areas of China, India and Bangladesh claimed by desert;
Polynesia swallowed by the sea;
the Colorado River thinned to a trickle;
the American Southwest largely uninhabitable.

The prospect of a 5 °C warming has prompted some of the world’s leading climate scientists to warn of the end of human civilization.
1_6    climate change_ARTICLE
Pope Francis
The list of oil companies that met with the Pope about climate change has some big names missing
2018 06 09,
1_4    desertification_VIDEO
Thomas L. Friedman
Trump, Niger and Connecting the Dots
2017 10 31,
New York Times
investigates the increasing population of climate refugees
1_2    oil industry_5 degree_ARTICLE
BP and Shell planning for catastrophic 5°C global warming by 2050
2017 10 27,
graph_forecast shell
December 27th, 2022