ICE SHEET G_  1 – 5
5_1    1700 -> 2100    [g01]
data source:
IPCC AR5, Fifth Assessment Report_climate change 2013: the physical science basis
Fig. 13.27./page 1204
Compilation of paleo sea level data, tide gauge data, altimeter data (from Figure 13.3), and central estimates and likely ranges for projections of global mean sea level rise for RCP2.6 (blue) and RCP8.5 (red) scenarios (Section 13.5.1), all relative to pre-industrial values.
is the difference between enegry that stays on earth [sunligh / insolation absorbed by the Earth] and energy radiated back to space.
Positive radiative forcing means Earth receives more incoming energy from sunlight than it radiates to space.
This net gain of energy will cause warming.
PARIS climate agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation [Reduzierung], adaptation and finance starting in the year 2020.
signed 04 2016
end 2017 195UNFCCC members have signed the agreement [164 ratified it].
The contributions of the individual countries are called: NDCs - nationally determined contributions.
[CO2 emissions 2015: China 29.4%, US 14.3%, EEA 9.8%, India 6.8%, Russia 4.9%, Japan 3.5%, other 31.5%]

ARTICLE 3 requires them to be ambitious. Each further ambition should be more ambitious than the previous one, known as the principle of progression.
The specific climate goals are politically encouraged, rather than legally bound.
3_1_1  AIMS
A. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change;

B. Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse [nachteilig] impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience [Belastbarkeit] and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production;

C. Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.“ Countries furthermore aim to reach „global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible“.
3_1_2  START 2018 [-2025]
The global stocktake will kick off in 2018 with a facilitative dialogue, evaluation in 2025.
[parties will evaluate nearer-term goal and and the long-term goal of achieving net zero emissions after 2050+.]

The negotiators of the Agreement, however, stated that the NDCs and the 2 °C reduction target were insufficient;
instead, a 1.5 °C target is required, noting „with concern that the estimated aggregate greenhouse gas emission levels in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the intended nationally determined contributions do not fall within least-cost 2 °C scenarios but rather lead to a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in 2030“,
and recognizing furthermore „that much greater emission reduction efforts will be required in order to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 °C by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or to 1.5 °C“.
[in the first half of 2016 average temperatures were about 1.3 °C [although not the sustained temperatures over the long term which the Agreement addresses] .
2_2  NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government [ t is not part of any executive department], responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
2_2_1  NASA . ice sheets
satelite data: 2002-present

Data source: Ice mass measurement by NASA's GRACE satellites.
Credit: NASA
Antarctica 2000 – 2017mass variation
Greenland 2000 – 2017 mass variation
2_2_2  NASA . Climate
Sealevel ground data: 1870-2000

Data source: Coastal tide gauge records.
Credit: CSIRO

A spatial representation of the patterns of the global trends of the rising seas between 1993 and present. The figure was produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, under the NASA MEaSUREs program (version JPL 1603).
2_2  EPA
United States Environmental Protection Agency
is an independent agency United States federal government for environmental protection
2_2_1  EPA . Snow and Ice
Arctic Sea Ice: 1979–2016

Fig.1, March and September Monthly Average Arctic Sea Ice Extent

Data source: NSIDC, 2016
Antarctic Sea Ice: 1979–2016

Fig.1, February and September Monthly Average Antarctic Sea Ice Extent

Data source: NSIDC, 2016
2_2  NSIDC
National Snow and Ice Data Center
is a United States information and referral center in support of polar and cryospheric research.
2_2_1  NSIDC . ice data
average monthly sea ice extent 1979- 2015 / present

Data source: NSIDC
Credit: NSIDC
1_1 cause
Most climate scientists agree the main cause of the current global warming trend is human expansion of the "greenhouse effect" — warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space.
Stefan Rahmstorf . German oceanographer and climatologist.
Since 2000, he has been a Professor of Physics of the Oceans at Potsdam University. He received his Ph.D. in oceanography from Victoria University of Wellington (1990).
His work focuses on the role of ocean currents in climate change. He was one of the lead authors of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report.
Rising Seas: How Fast, How Far
. Stefan Rahmstorf . 2016 05 25 . Earth101 . a part of series of lectures given at the University of Iceland*
The Climate Crisis. Stefan Rahmstorf . 2013 10 05 . Earth101 . *
July 3rd, 2019